Strategies for Northern Development-SND
managed by Dida A.
SND is a registered national NGO in Kenya with charity no: OP.218/051/2007/0421/4877. Its mission is to empower and enhance Northern Kenya pastoralist communities’ resilience to poverty shocks,climate extremes and their impacts through secured livelihood, access to affordable quality education, child and health care services and good governance. SND primary focus is in Food security and Livelihood, Water and sanitation, Natural resource management, Health and Nutrition (Combating HIV/AIDS being a major component), Child education, Disaster risk reduction, women and youth Empowerment,good governance and human right. SND vision is to build resilient and empowered pastoralist communities who are in control of their lives and livelihoods. SND main objective is to encourage and support local initiatives that enhance sustainable development through adoption of cutting edge technologies and approaches. SND promotes the use of local resources, appreciation of local knowledge and experience as the building blocks for development activity. Careful research into the socio-economic, cultural, technical and environmental conditions is an essential pre-requisite for successful investment. Participation of beneficiaries in design, implementation and evaluation is considered essential. Integration of activities, local capacity building, negotiation with beneficiaries and the principle that women and men are considered equal partners are important elements of the development process.Working with partners and community-based organisation is part and parcel of SND’s work. SND believes that sustainable development requires long-term relationships and strong mutual commitment.
The Vision of the organization has been defined as “Resilient and empowered pastoralist communities who are in control of their lives and livelihoods”.
SND’s Mission statement is “To empower and enhance northern Kenya pastoralist communities’ resilience to poverty shock, climatic extremes and their impacts through secured livelihood, access to affordable quality education and health care services, as well as good governance”.
SND is steadfastly committed to the following core values:
Creativity and innovativeness- We look for inventive ideas to our exceptional working environment
Gender equality and cultural diversity- We promote gender and ethnic equality.
Transparency and accountability- We are accountable to our partners, donors and the community
Respect for human rights and social justice-We uphold fairness, democratic values, human dignity and social justice.
Collaboration and Partnership-We partner with communities and organizations to identify local opportunities for collaborative problem solving that align with everyone’s mission.
1. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES
SND works with well-defined strategic objective including the following:
1.To promote access to affordable Quality education and Health Care services
2.To promote citizen participation in setting up of people centred, accountable and responsive devolved governance.
3.To promote respect for Human rights and Social justice
4.To promote Peaceful coexistence among pastoralists Communities in Northern Kenya
5.Enhancing the capacity of local communities through integrated programs built on constructive cultural and Modern practices to make use of available local resources and increased sustainable diversified livelihoods and economic development.
6.Bridging the gap between the local community and the outside world through community-driven development initiatives for long-term sustainable benefits.
7.To Enhance accessibility of natural resources (portable water, rangelands) for human, livestock and crop production in a conserved and sustainably managed environment
8.To build synergies with local institutions (community groups), Non State Actors, Line ministries and other development partners to ensure complementarities and effectively and efficiently respond to growing needs of the local communities.
SND works in Northern Kenya. It operates in Moyale and Sololo sub counties of Marsabit County and Wajir North, Wajir West and Eldas sub counties of Wajir County.
6. THEMATIC AREAS
SND works on the following thematic areas:
1. Pastoralist child Education
Education plays an important role in human development through the process of empowering people to improve their well-being and participate actively in nation building. However, the ASALs, particularly the arid districts, have shown a significant lag, not only in national examination performance, but also with respect to enrolment rates compared to the gross enrolment ratio (GER). Only 32.3% of the total population in Northern Kenya has enrolled in school compared to a national average of 76.8%. While the national Net Enrolment Ratios (NER) look quite appealing, clocking 90% by 2007, many districts of the north, including most of the pastoral districts, had ratios as low as 20.6% for primary (Wajir) and 1.6% for secondary (Marsabit) (MoE statistics, 2009). Conditions for vulnerable students are even worse; many of them drop out of school before class five due to a host of factors including early marriages, FGM and pregnancies. Girls’ access to education continues to be a challenge, with the county registering the lowest enrolment in the country 11.6% adult female and 53.8% primary school girls enrolment ratio (UNDP 2009, Kenya HDR).ASALs suffer shortages of primary schools, secondary schools, and other training institutions including teacher-training centres.
Access to quality education, retention and completion rate has remained very low in the region despite free and compulsory education policies adopted by the government. Girls and vulnerable children are even more disadvantaged in accessing education compared to boys. These are caused by insecurity, low community participation in education of their children, nomadic lifestyle, rigid cultural practices as well as long term marginalization which pull back educational development with the vulnerable children being the most affected.
To achieve meaningful results there is need to build the capacity of the communities to appreciate not only education but also the fact that development and the future is in their hands.
SND has developed strategies to address these issues and hopes to achieve the following key results.
•Increased enrolment, retention, performance and completion in primary schools;
• Enhanced opportunities for girls enrolment;
•Enhanced community capacity for lobbying and advocacy
•Provide innovative approaches, with opportunities for scale up that are sustainable.
2. Drought Preparedness, Emergency and Climate Change
Kenya has a landmass of about 582,350 km2 of which only 17percent is arable while 83% consists of semi-arid and arid land (GoK, 2012). Like other countries in the world, Climate change and climate variability pose major threats to the environment, economic growth and sustainable development. The negative effects from Climate Change experienced in Kenya include reduced agricultural production, food insecurity, increased incidences of flooding and droughts, widespread disease epidemics, and increased risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. These impacts of climate change are further compounded by local environmental degradation caused by illegal encroachments, deforestation and unsustainable livestock grazing.
Climate Change affects various sectors in Kenya differently, with the most vulnerable being agriculture, livestock, water, health, fisheries and tourism. Agriculture is a major activity in Kenya, earning 60% of foreign exchange and 24% of the GDP as well as providing employment for 80% of the population (GoK, 2012). Over reliance on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral livestock production systems places Kenya as one of the high risks countries from the impacts of climate change. Changes in weather patterns like rise in temperature and unpredictable rainfall all have direct negative effects on agricultural activities thereby threatening food security and livelihoods of many communities in Kenya especially those from arid and semi-arid areas.
Arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) areas in Kenya are characterized by fragile ecosystems that have suffered increased degradation due to climate variability. In particular, Kenya’s ASALs experienced prolonged droughts during La Nina period of 1999-2001, January-March 2006 and 2008-2009 (NEMA, 2007). This significantly caused crop failure and reduced yields compromising food security and leading to famine, human migration and displacements. There has also been a significant reduction of livestock production due to reduced pasture and water resources. In some instances extreme drought conditions occur which lead to death of animals affecting livelihoods and economic status of ASAL communities.
To respond to the above effects of climate change, SND is making interventions in the following key sectors; water resources, agriculture, livestock, agro forestry, energy and infrastructure, human health and gender in relation to climate change.SND has been implementing integrated adaptive mechanisms to increase community livelihood resilience to climate change as follows:
•Adoption of drought tolerant crops, and promotion of value chain approaches
•Development of water harvesting assets/structures
•Promotion of forestry and agro forestry ecosystem-based strategies to enhance food security and resilience to climate change as well as water and soil conservation.
•Promotion of pastoral ecosystem-based adaptations that will increase resilience through use of pasture conservation and emergency fodder bank, storage and supply of water to improve social life of the people in the district.
•Disaster risk reduction and preparedness through early warning system and flood control structures
•Establishment of a knowledge management system, development of institutional capacity, and raising awareness on Climate Change.
3. Conflict Resolution and Peace Building
Human security is the epicenter of societal development. It is an essential factor in the socio-economic production and religio-cultural relations between peoples and communities. Northern Kenya remains one of the insecure places as a result of intra community conflicts over use of natural resources and cross border incursions.SND works towards building sustainable peace and human security through sustainable livelihoods for pastoralists’ communities in Northern Kenya.
Key result areas expected in this theme include the following
•Strengthened native leadership structures.
•Increased prevention of conflict through community participation, ownership and implementation of small-scale livelihood based projects.
•Improved physical infrastructure that promotes opportunities for inter-community / inter-group cooperation.
•Improved cooperation for sharing the scarce available resources through historical and indigenous mechanisms.
•Increased inter-community tolerance among children and youth from the target areas.
•Antagonist communities to interact in a peaceful manner through joint training and the establishment of joint markets and trade opportunities.
•Improved community-level reconciliation and increased co-operation between competing communities over access to water resources.
•Increased capacities of vulnerable households to generate income and improve household food security among residents of target communities.
•Increased capacity of members of Peace and Development Committees at the County and Sub County levels to conduct conflict mapping and assessment, basic conflict resolution and manage a conflict monitoring system.
•Strengthened systems for collection and dissemination of information on potential and ongoing conflicts in the target communities.
4. Water and Sanitation
Program aims at increased access to sustainable safe water, sanitation, and hygiene through rehabilitation/construction of water points, health, sanitation awareness and education.
Expected results are as follows:
•Increased access to safe water for human and livestock consumption for drought relief and livelihood support.
•Strengthen capacities of communities through training in the management, maintenance and sustainability of water systems and conflict mitigation.
•Mobilized communities with improved hygiene and sanitation through latrine construction, water source protection and public awareness on hygiene promotion education.
5. Devolution and Governance
The objects of Devolution are to among others ‘give powers of self-governance to the people and enhance the participation of the people in the exercise of the State and in making decisions affecting them. SND’s Programme under this area aims to promote effective and people- Centered Devolved Governments
Specific Objectives are to:
•Enhance citizen awareness on the new Devolved Structures and avenues of Representation of the people (Voter Education, Civic Education and Political Parties) including marginalised groups such as women, persons with disabilities and minorities
•Facilitate citizen engagement with the development of the policy and legislative framework setting up new Devolved Structures, especially engagement of women, persons with disabilities and minorities.
•Facilitate citizen engagement with and representation within the new Devolved Structures especially for marginalised groups such as women, persons with disabilities and minorities
•Promote accountability and transparency in the Devolved structures (citizen scorecards, accountability fora, oversight committees)
6.Child Protection and Human Right
SND seeks to strengthen participatory democracy, social justice and the promotion and protection of human rights through enhancing the capacity of the local community structures.SND’s programmes also include efforts to confront and minimize the reality of stigma and social neglects faced by children, as well as abuse and exploitation, including trafficking, the taking of inherited property and land tenure.
Key protection issues include;
1) Social Protection
SND support for social protection aims to reduce risks, foster human capital development and interrupt transmission of poverty from one generation to another.
2) Child Protection
SND has developed appropriate strategies for preventing and responding to child abuse, exploitation, violence and family separation.
•Implementing child safeguarding policies
•Integrating child protection activities
•Supporting and working with communities to prevent and respond to child protection issues.
•Strengthening linkages between the formal and informal child protection systems
•Building stakeholder capacities to carry out and improve child protection responses.
3) Legal Protection
SND advocates for legal protection of children at all levels and ensures basic legal rights, birth registration and inheritance rights are met to improve access to essential services and opportunities.
7.Health and Nutrition
The Health and Nutrition programme seeks to promote the health and nutrition status of vulnerable people in Northern Kenya and especially the women and children. Optimal nutrition ensures proper development of a child’s brain and body cells, enabling them to grow into productive adults who can contribute to the development of their society. The health and general well-being of pregnant women and those in their reproductive years determines the health of the children they will bear.
Key issues supported include;
•Prevention and treatment of acute malnutrition
•Promotion of appropriate Maternal Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN)
•Micro nutrient supplementation
•Health and hygiene education promotion
•Support to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
•Integrated outreaches in hard to reach areas
•Capacity building of health personnel as well as the community health workers (CHWs)
•Coordination mechanisms at both national and district/county level
8. Food Security and Livelihoods
The sector focuses on environment and sustainable livelihood development; Priority areas of work includes;
•Rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and lands
•Sustainable improved livestock and crop production
•Promotion of sustainable and environmentally friendly production practices(adaptive to climate change)
•Livelihood and economic diversifications
•Capacity development trainings provided to farmers/women group members to build their capacities on kitchen gardens/demo farms, cooking, nutrition education and hygiene, seeds and seedlings production techniques, agro-based livelihoods, food processing, preservation techniques, group dynamics, marketing and entrepreneurial skills.
9. Women Empowerment
The empowerment of women and girls is not only important for an equitable society, it is essential to build stronger economies, achieve internationally agreed-upon development goals, and improve the quality of life of women, men, families, and communities.
SND promotes women’s empowerment by offering them opportunities for leadership and full participation. Our programs advance these aims through:
•Delivering basic literacy, numeracy, and vocational training for pastoralist women and girls
•Promoting women’s leadership in marginalized communities of Northern Kenya.
•Improving the economic empowerment of women by developing their business skills and increasing their employability;
•Educating family and community members on the important role of women in the workplace and community.
•Increasing number of pastoralists women and girls with capacity to use ICTs
•Psychosocial and economical support for Women and Girls living with HIV/AIDS
7.PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH
SND will continue to implement the above mentioned programs using suitable procedures and rights based approach of engagement with our beneficiaries .The approach shall among other issues embrace:-
Community involvement in all stages of project cycle
Lobby and advocate for favorable government policy
Collaboration with like minded stakeholders
Reduction of extreme poverty for the vulnerable households
Right based approach to program implementation
SND has vast achievement in term of reaching to the target beneficiaries while also impacting positively on them and these success stories has been eminent under water and Sanitation, Food security and livelihood, Devolution and Governance, Health and Nutrition, Climate change, pastoralists Child education, Youth and Women empowerment and peace building program. More so the use of participatory approach has enabled the organization to reach effectively and efficiently to its target beneficiaries and one such success strategies is the community managed disaster risk reduction (CMDRR) model clusters where community capacity are enhanced to build resilience to the shocks in their environment.
The following are also other key achievements in various program implemented by SND;
•Improved management of water resource utilization.
•Increased household income.
•Enhanced people centered accountable and responsive democratic governance.
•Improved community hygiene and sanitation.
•Enhanced capacity of the district peace committees including youth for Peace and Women for Peace.
•Improved community copying mechanisms e.g. production of hay as an alternative livelihood.
•Enhanced community livelihood with increased irrigated agricultural activities through dry land farming technologies and environmental greening Programme.
•Enhanced consistently quality of life of Orphans and vulnerable children and their households through provision of care and support for the vulnerable, infected and affected children and enhance prevention and protection.
•Reduced stress on livestock and human through development of strategic water points.
•Enhanced access to educational opportunities for pastoralist children.
SND works with the following key partners:
• Ministry of Water and Irrigation.
• Ministry of Health.
• Ministry of Education.
• Ministry of Gender, children and social Development.
• CBO’s and NGOs.
Development partners include;
• APHIAPLUS IMARISHA
• WORLD VISION
9. SND CAPACITY
SND has wealth of experience in developmental/ humanitarian work as well as managing huge donor resources. It has attracted funding from Cordaid, World Vision, Government of Kenya, UNDP and USAID.The organization is experienced in donor reporting and conditions. In addition SND has established strong partnerships with Government, NGOs and other development agencies in its mandated areas. Use of integrated and participatory approach to development is also a key foundation in implementation of projects.
In order to successfully carry out its operations, every organization needs assets and SND over the years has managed to accumulate enormous assets to effectively execute its activities. These assets include a good communication system which entails telephone, internet, high frequency radios, computers that are networked to printing system and means of transport including, vehicles and motor cycles.
Central to every successful organization is its human resource capacity to put into practice the knowledge and skills it has gained over the years, consequently SND has incorporated opportunities for both in-house training and advancement of staffs’ field of expertise to build their capacity to handle various challenges in implementation hence the staff are highly qualified and committed. In addition the staffs are drawn from the various local communities inhabiting the target areas and thus have an added advantage of acquaintance to the local environment they are working in.
The table below shows the current (2014) organization staff with their relevant qualification.
Name of the staff Qualifications
Dida Ali Ibrahim Bsc. Mathematics and Computer science
Tache Elema Duba Bsc. Medical Microbiology
Adan Roba Dabasso Certified Public Accountant III and Diploma in Project Mgt
Abdi Adan Guyo BA. Development Studies
Jamal Duba Dima Diploma Community Development and IT
Amina Galgallo Jillo Certificate in Human Resources
Kana Roba MA. Project planning and Management
Roba Wako BA. Purchase and Supply Management
Salim Aliow Hassan Diploma in Community Development
Rahma Abkunu Community Development Facilitator
Sadia Abdi Hassan Community Development Facilitator
Mumina Maalim Gedo Community Development Facilitator
Yahya Adan Ware Community Development Facilitator
Hassan Abdinur Sharrif Community Development Facilitator
Abdikadir Doti Community Development Facilitator
Rashid Ismael Hassan Community Development Facilitator
10. Policy and Procedure Document:
Finance and procurement Policy
SND Strategic Plan
Child Protection Policy
Data protection Policy
11. ANNUAL BUDGET
Since its inception, SND has managed to mobilize resource both locally and from external partners and on annual basis the organization has been raising on average over KSHs 20 million towards addressing pastoralist concerns.